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How Do I Find ~ Digital Fluency Resources



Jisc (2017)

Jisc. "Building Digital Capabilities: The Six Elements Defined." Bristol, UK: Joint Information Systems Committee, 2017.
link to page


Functional Skills

Information and communication technology proficiency

  • The use of ICT-based devices, applications, software and services.
  • The use of ICT-based tools to carry out tasks effectively, productively, and with attention to quality.

Critical Use

Information, data and media literacies
The use of ICT-based tools to carry out tasks effectively, productively, and with attention to quality.

  • The capacity to collate, manage, access and use digital data.
  • The capacity to critically receive and respond to messages in a range of digital media.

Creative Production

Digital creation, problem solving and innovation

  • The capacity to design and/or create new digital artefacts and materials.
  • The capacity to use digital evidence to solve problems and answer questions.
  • The capacity to adopt and develop new practices with digital technology.


Digital communication, collaboration and participation

  • The capacity to communicate effectively in digital media and spaces.
  • The capacity to participate in digital teams and working groups.
  • The capacity to participate in, facilitate and build digital networks.


Digital learning and development

  • The capacity to participate in and benefit from digital learning opportunities.
  • The capacity to support and develop others in digitally-rich settings.


Digital identity and wellbeing

  • The capacity to develop and project a positive digital identity or identities and to manage digital reputation.
  • The capacity to look after personal health, safety, relationships and work-life balance in digital settings.


DigComp (2017)

Carretero, Stephanie, Riina Vuorikari, and Yves Punie. DigComp 2.1: The Digital Competence Framework for Citizens with Eight Proficiency Levels and Examples of Use. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2017.
link to report

Riina Vuorikari/SlideShare

Information and Data Literacy

  • Browsing, searching, filtering data, information and digital content
  • Evaluating data, information and digital content
  • Managing data, information and digital content

Communication and Collaboration

  • Interacting through digital technologies
  • Sharing throught digital technologies
  • Engaging in citizenship through digital technologies
  • Collaborating through digital technologies
  • Netiquette
  • Managing digital identity 

Digital Content Creation

  • Developing digital content
  • Integrating and re-elaborating digital content
  • Copyright and licences
  • Programming


  • Protecting devices
  • Protecting personal data and privacy
  • Protecting health and well-being
  • Protecting the environment 

Problem Solving

  • Solving technical problems
  • Identifying needs and technological responses
  • Creatively using digital technologies
  • Identifying digital competence gaps

Bryn Mawr

Bryn Mawr, Digital Competencies Pentagon (2016)

Bryn Mawr College. "What Are Digital Competencies." 2016.
link to page

Bryn Mawr College

Digital Survival Skills

  • Networks and file management
  • Metacognition and life-long learning
  • Troubleshooting
  • Managing digital identity, privacy and security
  • Strategic web and database searching

Digital Communications

  • Collaborative communication
  • Digital writing and publishing
  • Audiovisual analysis and production

Data Management and Preservation

  • Electronic data collection
  • Privacy, security and preservation
  • Cleaning, organizing, and managing data
  • Metadata

Data Analysis and Presentation

  • Data queries and reporting
  • Data analysis
  • Critical data visualization

Critical Making, Design and Development

  • Algorithmic thinking/coding
  • Design thinking
  • Project management
  • Digital research and scholarship

Belshaw's Essential Elements

Belshaw, Essential Elements of Digital Literacies (2014)

Belshaw, Douglas A. J. What is Digital Literacy? A Pragmatic Investigation. Ed.D. diss., Durham University, 2011. Revised and republished as The Essential Elements of Digital Literacies, 2014.
link to thesis
link to book



The cultural element is bound up with an understanding of context—the issues, norms and habits of mind surrounding technologies (e.g., social media apps) we use for a particular purpose (e.g., work, play, learning,etc.). This element is best acquired through immersion in a range of digital environments.


The cognitive element requires mastery of both technical and cognitive processes. The emphasis here should not be on the ability to use a set of digital tools, but on the "habits of mind" that are developed through interacting with them. This element can be developed through exposure to a range of devices, software platforms and interfaces.


The constructive element encompasses creating something new, including using and remixing content from other sources to make something original. Developing this element involves knowing how and for what purposes content can be appropriated, reused and remixed.


The communicative element is about developing an understanding of how communication networks function with the aim of engaging them. Developing the element requires not only learning about the power of these networks, but being part of them.



The confident element is based on understanding and capitalizing on the ways the digital world differs from the analog. In particular, digital environments can be more forgiving in regards to experimentation than physical environments. Developing this element involves solving problems and managing one's own learning.


The creative element is about doing new things in new ways that somehow add value in a particular context. Developing this element requires learning activities that capitalize on the unique features of digital technology and provide learners with greater freedom to explore and then synthesize their experiences.


The critical element is about analyzing the power structures and assumptions behind literacy practices. This element is the closest to what is often termed "media literacy."


The civic element involves the development of practices that support civil society. This element focuses on the ability of people to use digital environments to create organizations and relationships over and above those provided by the state and commercial institutions.

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