Color can make you design stand out, but to make an accessible design, don't rely on color alone for meaning.
Make a conscious choice with your colors, one of the few elements in a logo. However, different people have different perceptions and may distinguish less or more colors than you; different people also have different associations with the colors they perceive, based on culture and personal experience. For effective design, you should be aware of the various meanings and perceptions of colors.
First, start by thinking of what meaning you want to convey, and what your audience is.
If you can distinguish the following common colors, what meanings do you associate with them?
Here are some possible meanings of color, but individual and cultural context can change and add meanings.
Keep in mind that while your colors should be chosen with a purpose, we can't rely on color for meaning, since not all people distinguish the same colors or have the same associations.
Second, consciously design a color scheme, taking various color perceptions into account. Don't pick your colors at random, even if you've a good eye for color combinations. You can use a color wheel and some simple rules to pick colors that will pair well for someone with high color acuity—but you'll want to make sure your design will still be accessible for people with common forms of color-blindness. Check out the resources below to help design your color scheme!